Do You Really Need a Content Automation Platform?
The increasing sophistication of online technologies and the mass adoption of smartphones, tablets, and social media have created more opportunities for organizations to engage with and enable their customers, prospects, partners, and employees.
At the same time, expectations for accessing business-critical, multimedia content at the right time and in the right place have increased exponentially. Traditional approaches to content are failing in this new era of communication.
Enterprise content management (ECM), digital asset management DAM, and other content-related solutions may each play a role in the content lifecycle, but in many cases they are not integrated, frustrating to manage, and don’t do a good enough job enabling collaboration and tracking changes and updates to content. The solution that solves these challenges is content automation.
When content automation is appropriate, the results are extremely valuable. Productivity goes up, time to market is reduced, your company can support more information products without adding resources, and you can improve the quality of your content for better customer engagement. In other words, content automation will have a transformational impact on your business.
Content automation is best deployed when your business or organization creates content that has one or more of the following characteristics:
- A high volume of similar documents
- A high volume of revisions
- Frequently repeated creation processes
- Delivery in multiple formats
- Delivery with multiple presentation styles
- Translation to multiple languages
- Subject to regulation and compliance mandates
Content automation is being applied to a wide range of business-critical content types across many different industries. Here are some examples:
- Standard operating procedures
- Policies and procedures
- Fund fact sheets
- Sales collateral
- Product datasheets
- Investment Research
- Legislation and regulatory documents
- Training and instruction manuals
- Analyst reports
To find out more about content automation and if it’s right for your organization, contact Quark or download the Beginner’s Guide to Content Automation to begin learning how a content automation platform can help your business.
New Digital Publishing Features Now Available in App Studio
In September 2017, Quark released a new collection of digital publishing features and enhancements for App Studio. App Studio is the digital publishing solution that allows users to create branded content apps using QuarkXPress, InDesign, HTML5, and XML. Unlike other digital publishing and custom app solutions, App Studio is cost effective and does not require coding.
The new features in App Studio make it easier for designers and creative professionals to deliver modern, interactive apps to consumers across a range of digital and mobile devices. Not only does App Studio support the latest iOS and Android platforms, the new release allows designers to create app-like experiences that run in any modern Web browser.
- Responsive HTML support: In addition to fixed layouts, App Studio apps are now capable of handling responsive HTML5. With this new feature, apps can be responsive to various screen sizes plus the App Studio portal has been enhanced to auto-generate thumbnails for each device.
- Multi-layout support: App Studio now introduces the capability to create, package, and deliver rich, device-specific designs for various screen sizes. Users can design publications for different aspect ratios (with multiple orientations) and package device specific output for a single app. This feature is available when using QuarkXPress 2017.
- HTML5 Publications: Users can now easily turn print publications into HTML5 publications with just a few clicks in QuarkXPress. Simply convert a print layout to a digital layout, add interactivity, and export as HTML5 Publication. The HTML5 Publication contains a Web App you can host on directly on a website that will render on all devices – desktops, tablets, and mobile devices. This eliminates the need to submit apps to app stores!
- Enhanced Web App: The App Studio Web App is now configurable, enabling users to change the Toolbar options, Page Fitting options, Lock Orientation options, Navigation Arrows, and more. QuarkXPress users benefit from a simple UI for turning these features on and off.
- HTTPS support enabled: App Studio has been enhanced to secure client communication with content (hosting) servers and subscriptions.
- Updated InDesign Exporter: The App Studio plug-in – InDesign Exporter 3.01 – is now compatible with Adobe InDesign CC2017. The completely redesigned plug-in has an improved user interface and enhanced performance with App Studio publishing.
Learn more about these features and more at Quark.com.
InfoTrends Content Automation Survey 2017
Quark would like to hear from you! How does your organization create, manage, publish, and deliver business-critical content? Which solutions and strategies work? What are your major challenges?
For the second consecutive year Quark has teamed up with InfoTrends, the market research firm, to conduct the Content Automation Survey. The goal of our research is to uncover insights into how large organizations develop and disseminate content.
Help us understand your content challenges and successes. Take ten minutes to complete a short survey and you’ll receive a copy of the report detailing the results when they become available. In addition, you can opt into a prize drawing to win one of three Amazon Echo Dots.
Take the survey: Quark and InfoTrends Content Automation Survey 2017. To note, your individual responses will be held in strict confidence and will only be used in aggregate by InfoTrends for analysis purposes.
ECM Sheds its Skin
Gartner recently announced the death of ECM (Enterprise Content Management) and the birth of Content Services! In his blog, Gartner Research Director Michael Woodbridge describes this more as a change in definition, and it’s clear from the supporting Gartner notes that this change in definition reflects a broader scope in a changing marketplace.
No technology market changes overnight or in isolation, but it’s refreshing to see Gartner frequently refer to this change as an evolution. However you phrase it – death, change, or evolution – let’s examine this transformation from managed content to “content services.”
Content is very much alive
Any snake owner will tell you (perhaps more than you want to know) about the rich process that takes place when a snake sheds its skin. I’m referring to the cliché we use to describe transformation in positive terms as a kind of renewal, just like the skin-changing process so vital to a snake’s survival and healthy growth. This doesn’t happen instantly and if you know the signs you can see the change coming.
Significant financial investment, resources, and time have been devoted to enterprise content management systems over the years. Much like a snake’s belly begins to turn color days before it actually begins to shed, the ECM market has also long indicated a need for this change. For example, going some ways back, there’s this quote from Alan Paterson, author of Office Systems: Planning, Procurement, and Implementation (1985):
Storage can be achieved easily…the difficulty lies…not so much in storage, but in how to manage the vast masses of knowledge in an orderly form and reasonable response times.
Quite apt for today’s enterprise content management systems, search and retrieval help surface content and fuel insights, especially with the growth of enterprise data and changes Google has made related to its Search Application. This is only one specific use case around content, but this need and others like it have always mattered.
What is Content Services?
According to Gartner, Content Services are a set of services and microservices, embodied either as an integrated product suite or as separate applications that share common APIs and repositories, to exploit diverse content types and to serve multiple constituencies and numerous use cases across an organization.
Why should you care?
It’s really about time we had new definition in this market. ECM-centric systems and processes have resulted in key gaps that hinder the delivery of true business value around content. Generic ECM systems often lack the user experience around the content lifecycle, which can impact adoption and therefore maximum benefit in the investment. To maximize the return on investment for any enterprise system, successful initiatives driven by visionary business leaders should think differently as they shop for new platforms. Many already do.
The focus on function and features, by way of Content Services, paves the way to a better overall user experience within a managed context. This directly improves adoption and return on investment for embedded enterprise systems. Woodbridge (2017) describes four historical ECM goals to help explain how we got here:
- Regulatory compliance and risk management
- Retention and dissemination of business knowledge
- Cost and process efficiencies
- Innovation and new ways of working
While ECM excelled at meeting the first goal, the others proved more challenging and outcomes included some less than perfect user experiences.
Where does Quark fit in?
Quark leadership saw the opportunity for content services and content automation almost ten years ago. Moving beyond the traditional ECM approach of managing files through a process, content automation is about extending from content creation to content delivery via reusable content components. The result is a modernized technical architecture with a rich RESTful API infrastructure and a focus on usability for subject matter experts. Allowing expert end users to “just write” as they produce content within a managed workflow and remove the typical distractions of copy/paste, formatting, email-based review processes, and duplication of effort are benefits enjoyed by many Quark customers.
Successful adoption of the Quark Enterprise Soltutions has enabled significant business value for many industry verticals:
- Banks around the world can ensure their tellers have up to the minute geo-specific content for their customers
- Information products focused on industry research expand the market for thought leadership and drive new product channels focused on targeted, engaging high-value communications for content consumers
- Major global players connect donors to economic development projects thanks to timely, personalized, and automated delivery of narrative content and relevant data
- Governmental organizations enjoy modernized, automated process around collaborative review of emerging policy to deliver end results in a fraction of the time
Learn more about the Quark content automation platform and how it can help expand the business value of your content. And, just like every time my snake sheds her skin, I am looking forward to radiant new colors as the content industry continues to embrace this trend.
12 Reasons to Standardize on an Enterprise Content Automation Platform
Many of your peers are adopting enterprise-level content platforms for the creation, management and publishing of policies and procedures. So, what’s in it for you to follow suit, and what are the reasons to consider standardizing on an enterprise-level platform?
8 Business Reasons to Standardize on an Enterprise Content Automation Platform
- Delivers higher-quality content that is more accurate, consistent and up-to-date. Standardized policies and procedures lifecycle content management activities and templates promote timely updates to ensure users have the latest information. This leads to higher customer and employee satisfaction.
- Applies consistent processes/activities across the policy and procedures lifecycle throughout the enterprise to lower the risk of EAs.
- Enables multi-channel delivery of policy and procedure content including to mobile devices.
- Promotes a culture of compliance across the enterprise to demonstrate your commitment to regulators.
- By migrating to smart content, content specialists can leverage automation technologies, parallel workflows and templates to dramatically boost policies and procedures content lifecycle productivity and cut costs.
- Is easily extended to support other, revenue-generating content activities (e.g. research reports, marketing materials, etc.).
- Accelerates the time to market for content. By compressing the time it takes to create/update policies and procedures content it is published sooner to lower the risk of violations. And revenue-generating content generates sales sooner.
- Nimbly adapts to a dynamic business and regulatory environment.
4 Technical Reasons to Standardize on an Enterprise Content Automation Platform
- A single platform takes less time and money to administer and maintain.
- A platform that incorporates interoperability protects your investment in legacy tools like content management and portal applications (e.g. SharePoint).
- It readily and cost-effectively scales to support additional content, groups, departments and regions.
- It utilizes content templates and automation features to reduce the workload on IT. Because a quality content platform doesn’t require complex programming to format and design documents, no IT resources are needed.
Policy & Procedure Solution Requirements for Financial Services Firms
Today’s hostile regulatory environment has put financial services firms on the defensive. Faced with stiff penalties, the growing risk of prosecution and career-ending rulings, CXOs are flocking to improve their regulatory profile. Unfortunately, an outdated manual workflow means a lack of control over policies and procedures content and therefore increased risk within financial services firms.
Look familiar? Legacy policies and procedures lifecycle creation and management solutions are:
- Extremely inefficient and costly to operate
- Slow to adapt to market conditions
- Inconsistent and inaccurate
- Slow to respond to internal and external auditors
That’s because financial services’ policy and procedure solutions leverage generic software, such as word processing and spreadsheet applications. These tools not only consign policy and procedure activities to manual processes, but they serve as a bottleneck to limit the contributions of robust content management solutions as well.
This begs the question: what would an effective policy and procedure lifecycle creation/management solution look like?
Leverage efficiency-boosting solutions to lower costs:
1. Business-rules-driven engines to drive efficient, parallel workflows that allow SMEs to work on content simultaneously
2. Standardize on best-practice workflows to promote consistency across the enterprise
Leverage automation technologies to replace manual tools/processes with high-productivity systems:
3. Leverage automated features to track, manage and update policy and procedure content. This feature alone can eliminate substantial labor hours currently devoted to the task.
Enable a wide variety of output formats/channels:
4. Support existing publishing and distribution channels for policies and procedures such as print and PDFs
5. Enable the automated production of modern publishing formats for policies and procedures such as HTML5 and mobile apps
6. Focus on making the procedures as easy to find, search and consume as possible
Replace point solutions with an enterprise-wide platform:
7. Through the use of configured templates, a common platform for all users dramatically increases the consistency of policy and procedure content and
activities across departments and regions
8. A single platform is cost effective for IT to manage
However, the platform must:
- Be scalable to accommodate growing policy and procedure operations
- Be adaptable to increase the utility of the solution by supporting similar activities such as research report creation, marketing content, etc.
- Integrate easily with existing systems such as content management tools and SharePoint
By meeting these criterion, financial services CXOs can dramatically bend the policy and procedure content lifecycle cost curve downward. This allows PMs to untether themselves from the straight-line costs usually associated with ballooning policies and procedures content.
Through an elegant and holistic design, Quark’s content automation platform goes far beyond fixing and patching your policy and procedure systems to build out a fully-functioning, enterprise-wide content platform. As a result, our policy and procedure content lifecycle solutions are helping financial services executives to:
- Strengthen their regulatory profile
- Significantly cut costs
- Speed time to market for valuable content
- Enhance consumption experience to promote wider policy adherence
With so much at stake for financial institutions, the Quark platform is comprehensive. You can seamlessly create, update, manage, publish, and deliver your policies and procedures via a wide range of channels and modes, including print and all the latest digital devices.
So, what are you waiting for? Meet the demand for accurate, up-to date and easily searchable policy and procedure content and stop fiddling with low-value tasks and focus fully on high-value content creation.
The Ugly Duckling No More: Using Page Layout Software to Format DITA Outputs
DITA is growing in popularity as a document standard and is now being used across a range of industries. As DITA grows beyond the scope of technical publications and as businesses become more concerned about branding documents across the organization, the current methods of coding templates to format DITA output are no longer sufficient for document production. We’ll explore using page layout software to design complex, visually rich templates for DITA and other XML document formats.
Many organizations around the world are automating their production of business-critical content with great success. Much of the creation process can be automated by pulling from external sources such as stock databases, geolocation systems, and statistical analysis reports. Translation memory databases are growing in popularity as a method for helping automate localization of content. Publication and delivery of documents can often be performed without human intervention. Using advanced template structures, document assemblies can be pre-approved and generated at the push of a button with just-in-time resolution of content.
DITA, an OASIS XML standard for documents and best practices, has helped pave the way for content automation. DITA supports foreign content, enabling the inclusion of data from outside sources, and its specialization architecture allows publishing channels to be built on or customized from existing publishing systems.
The initial application area of DITA was computer software documentation at IBM. Up until fairly recently, DITA remained, for the most part, in the realm of technical content. However, content producers of all kinds are now finding DITA to be a useful format for a wide range of applications. DITA is being used at universities, petroleum companies (Chevron, Schlumberger), non-profit organizations (FamilySearch, HealthWise), consortiums (World Agroforestry Centre) [Schengili-Roberts 2012], financial services organizations (Mastercard), and a number of non-technical publishing companies.
The main hurdle for the adoption of DITA in non-technical applications has been the technical nature of DITA and the associated Open Toolkit, used for converting DITA XML to and from other formats. One writer notes (emphasis mine), “DITA for non-technical writers is very much a real option, with some planning and tweaking of tools and workflows” [Samuels 2014]. However, the required planning and tweaking can be a significant obstacle for resource-strapped organizations.
Among the difficulties facing non-technical content producers using DITA, perhaps the most challenging is the design of output layouts. In a recent survey conducted by SyncroSoft, a large number of respondents cited PDF customization as their biggest frustration in working with DITA [Coravu 2016]. As Hans Christian Andersen highlights in his acclaimed 1843 fairy tale “The Ugly Duckling”, some hatchlings are perceived very differently. This paper describes how page layout software can be used by non-technical designers to add complex design and organization to DITA hatchlings.
A Brief History of Page Layout
Layout design has for centuries been a visual, manual process. Books produced in monasteries in medieval times generally featured a central block of text, surrounded by an artist’s ornamental design, or illumination. Even to this day, through the invention of the printing press and later computers and printers, page layouts are sometimes modeled on these early manuscript layouts. [Novin, 2010]
Figure 1. An elaborately illuminated manuscript, dated 1413-1416. A public domain image provided by The British Library.
As soon as the graphics capabilities of computers could support it, layout design moved to the territory of software. High quality page production was opened to the masses through WYSIWYG applications ranging from word processors to desktop publishing software. One of the earliest desktop publishing programs was PageMaker, originally produced by Aldus and later acquired by Adobe. PageMaker made it possible for designers to quickly compose text and images in eye-catching layouts and then send those layouts to printers.
Computers also enable the automation of publishing, but in order to fulfill this promise, page design concepts had to be translated to a programming language to support precise replication of a design. To this end, languages such as TeX and troff were created early on, even prior to WYSIWYG design software. As various digital document formats have emerged, so too has stylesheet support for these formats, allowing templates for design elements such as paragraph and line spacing, font families, and colors to be applied uniformly to documents. Two stylesheet languages in particular are used frequently for providing templates for DITA outputs: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO).
The Current Landscape for PDF Output of DITA
The DITA Open Toolkit (DITA-OT) is maintained separately from the DITA specification – it is an open source toolset for converting DITA to a variety of other formats including PDF and HTML, the most popular output formats for DITA. As most of the popular DITA outputs are XML-based and not difficult to produce, the rest of this paper will focus on PDF output, which gives users of DITA the most headaches. Print continues to be an important delivery channel. Many organizations still rely on PDF for pre-press printing. Additionally, PDF is a convenient and simple distribution channel for branded layout of longer documents intended for anyone to print. For these reasons and others, PDF garnered the top spot as respondents’ most important output format for DITA in the previously mentioned SyncroSoft survey. [Coravu 2016]
For PDF output, the DITA-OT uses XSL-FO as an intermediate step. As the Open Toolkit is free and an active open source project, the DITA-OT is widely used for producing DITA outputs, especially as it is built in to many applications offering DITA support. Therefore, XSL-FO is the primary path by which PDF output is achieved. However, there are tools that use CSS for templating and others use a proprietary approach. Finally, some DITA implementers have chosen to convert DITA to HTML or Word as the intermediate step before publishing PDF output.
Out of the box, the DITA-OT is set up to use the Apache Formatting Objects Processor (FOP) publishing engine but can be configured to use the Antenna House Formatter or the RenderX XEP engine for producing PDF. The advantages of using XSL-FO for PDF output are three-fold: the DITA-OT is already set up to produce XSL-FO, an XSL-FO formatting engine (Apache FOP) is freely available, and XSL-FO is intended for paginated outputs and can reliably handle more complex layouts than CSS. These advantages cannot be over-estimated. With almost no work required, resource-strapped organizations can get up and running with PDF output in no time, and basic customization can be performed by modifying the XSLT files that ship with the DITA-OT.
However, once an organization goes beyond requiring basic customization of the DITA-OT, the costs in time and money to work with XSL-FO increase dramatically. WYSIWYG XSL-FO software typically only offers basic functionality. Therefore, in most cases, a skilled developer is required to customize PDF output and preferably one who knows XSL-FO (not entirely common).
Furthermore, while DITA promises interoperability and the DITA-OT offers much faster ramp-up time than starting from scratch, differences in how the various rendering engines support the XSL-FO specification also require consideration. After investing in format development for FOP, for example, significant testing and refactoring is required when switching to another engine for PDF production. Small differences in rendering output matter to demanding enterprise customers who must meet specific business requirements for complex and engaging layouts. For these reasons costs of maintenance for XSL-FO can be high.
CSS is also designed for formatting and styling of content, and because CSS is widely known and easy to use, some DITA implementers have chosen to rely on CSS instead of XSL-FO. SyncroSoft, the makers of the <oXygen/> XML editor, have developed an open source DITA-OT plug-in that can convert DITA to PDF using CSS and either Prince XML or Antenna House Formatter, which can handle CSS as well as XSL-FO. Using a similar idea, some implementers first convert DITA to HTML/XHTML and then generate the PDF from the HTML using one of several applications available for this purpose, such as Prince XML.
The problem with CSS is that it was originally designed for web pages, for which pagination is not a priority. CSS2 does not have support for a number of features that XSL-FO supports, including multi-column layouts, items in margins such as footers and headers, page numbering, and cross-referencing particular page numbers. CSS3 introduced a Paged Media Module to help address some of these problems but not all [Harold & Means 2002]. Additionally, not all CSS formatting tools support the Paged Media Module. Depending on how complex the requirements are, CSS may not be sufficient.
Other Paths to PDF Output
Alternatives to XSL-FO and CSS do exist but are used more infrequently. Some implementations will convert DITA to another intermediate format such as Microsoft Word before publishing the document to PDF. The drawback here is that there are now two transformation processes to manage and two processes during which artifacts may be lost.
There are a few commercial PDF renderers on the market that do not rely on XSL-FO or CSS for formatting, including TopLeaf XML Publisher and Adobe FrameMaker. Both TopLeaf XML Publisher and Adobe FrameMaker provide a WYSIWYG interface for designing the page layout of the output PDF, but for both, this is a secondary goal, and, therefore, design functionality is neither comprehensive nor particularly easy to master. TopLeaf is built around XML; to customize DITA templates in TopLeaf, the designer must have some knowledge of DITA. FrameMaker is targeted to technical content, and as one blogger notes in comparing FrameMaker to Adobe’s page layout application InDesign, “The key question here is: How important is great, typographically-sophisticated, cool-looking, creative design to communicating technical information?” [Gold 2013]. The answer is “not very,” which is why Adobe has the two different products and which is why for “cool-looking, creative design” functionality designers do not turn to FrameMaker.
Handing DITA Output Design Back to Designers
Because of the current toolset offering, most of the design of DITA outputs is currently performed in code, by modifying XSLT or CSS files to produce the correct look for a set of documents. This is not ideal for a visual process dating back hundreds of years, of course, but it has been a tolerable state of affairs because DITA, until recently, has been used primarily for technical content, and traditionally technical content has not required particularly creative design. However, two trends are changing the landscape. Firstly, DITA’s popularity is growing for non-technical content produced by non-technical contributors, resulting in an increased demand for WYSIWYG design tools. Secondly, branding and user experience are becoming important priorities for businesses [Goodson 2012]. Branding touches all aspects of a business, including its technical publications, and user experience includes design. Incorporating high quality design into branding efforts creates a competitive advantage that businesses are using with success.
Complex page layout design is already available in desktop publishing software. Most rich-layout publications such as magazines and catalogs are built in InDesign or QuarkXPress, two tools that have carried on PageMaker’s legacy. Since today’s content automation world is built on XML, it shouldn’t be surprising that both InDesign and QuarkXPress have support for XML. This is our path forward for handing DITA layout design back to designers for producing complex, beautiful layouts that can be published to PDF and other outputs. As this author is familiar with QuarkXPress, the process will be described using Quark software, but a similar process can be applied using Adobe’s InDesign and InDesign Server.
The Process with Page Layout Software
QuarkXPress allows designers to place any number of design elements in a page layout in containers called Boxes. All Boxes in a layout have an associated unique identifier; the designer has the option to attach an easily recognizable name to the identifier. Additionally, a QuarkXPress project can include a number of other named variables and design elements. Variables can be used for static content, such as a copyright statement, or dynamic content, such as the publication date. All style preferences can be set in the project and named, from color palettes to table and list styles.
As well as being able to set the design and style preferences in a QuarkXPress project and providing identifiers for them, almost every aspect of a QuarkXPress project can be represented as XML. QuarkXPress’ XML doctype is known as Modifier. Modifier can be used to create or delete Boxes, change the properties of Boxes, such as shape or position, change the content of Boxes, change the style of the content of Boxes, and so on.
Putting the Modifier and a QuarkXPress project together is where the magic happens. The QuarkXPress project provides the template that guides the Modifier. For example, the QuarkXPress project might include a Box with the name of “Title” and two character styles, one with the name of “Main Title” setting the font size to 48pt and the other named “Subtitle” setting the font size to 36pt. The Modifier will then specify the strings to write to the “Title” Box with instructions of when to use the “Main Title” character style and when to use the “Subtitle” character style.
Figure 2. A QuarkXPress project containing a Box named "Title" and character styles "Main Title" and "Subtitle."
Figure 3. Example Modifier XML
The <ID> element specifies the name of the Box to be modified, in this case “Title.” CHARSTYLE attributes indicate the character style to apply to the contained text strings.
Because the Modifier schema is so closely related to the QuarkXPress project and because QuarkXPress is a mature design package, the use of Modifier with QuarkXPress enables organizations to create complex sets of documents. A project might consist of different layouts for different targets or various page designs for parts of chapters or articles (for example, first and last pages may use different design elements than middle pages). And all is at the control of the designer because the QuarkXPress templates dictate the boundaries within which the Modifier operates.
The engine that puts the Modifier and QuarkXPress project together and converts the XML to a new output format is the QuarkXPress Server. QuarkXPress Server can be used to automate conversion of large volumes of documents to a variety of different output formats including PDF and HTML. All that’s left in the pipeline is mapping DITA to Modifier, and given that both are XML languages for describing documents, this is a straightforward XSLT conversion. This conversion process is made even easier if implemented as a DITA-OT plug-in to leverage the DITA-OT’s ability to process DITA maps, links, and references.
Analysis of Approach
As we’ve seen, several different paths can be used for formatting PDF output of DITA content – each has its advantages and drawbacks. Let’s highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of using page layout software.
Because there needs to be a link between the XML and the design project, designers will either need to stay within the confines of the design project or know enough about the implementation to design around it. Following on the above example, if a designer creates a new design template, s/he will need to know that the project must have a Box with the name of “Title” or the title of the document will not appear in the output, or if the designer is modifying an existing template, s/he will need to know that the Box with the name of “Title” can be modified but not deleted. This might restrict how a layout designer normally works.
On the other hand, page layout software does provide a powerful mechanism for designers to add pizazz to DITA outputs through a WYSIWYG interface. Layout design is largely a visual process that depends on seeing how elements of a layout relate to other design elements on the page, and since InDesign and QuarkXPress are both mature applications, they have extensive functionality for making this process easier for designers, from providing color pickers for matching colors to Bezier pen tools for creating interesting shapes. Additionally, in certain areas, functionality of page layout software goes where XSL-FO cannot, such as with running text along odd shapes and curves.
Finally, high quality desktop publishing systems are commercial applications – this can be either a strength or weakness depending on your point of view. Some organizations will not want to spend the money on upfront software costs and instead prefer to use their own development resources to build on open source applications like Apache FOP. Others prefer to invest in tested, supported commercial products.
Advantages and Challenges of Supporting DITA
The main advantage of supporting DITA (beyond its widespread adoption) is the existence of the DITA-OT. Thanks to a large and active open source community, the DITA-OT is already set up to process large and complex DITA documents. In preprocessing steps the DITA-OT handles such tasks as validating the XML, applying filters, resolving references, and moving metadata. The DITA-OT is then able to pass an intermediate, simplified DITA file to an external rendering process, such as the QuarkXPress Server.
The primary challenge of supporting DITA is its sheer breadth. The All-Inclusive DITA 1.3 Specification, which includes the Technical Content and Learning & Training specializations, lists over 600 elements, and this does not include the elements allowed through foreign XML languages SVG and MathML. Many of the elements are specialized off of existing DITA base elements, which means that out-of-the-box support of these elements comes with DITA’s typing architecture. However, to consider a rendering engine to have full support of DITA 1.3, the rendering engine should distinguish specialized elements from the base elements.
Regarding SVG and MathML, neither QuarkXPress nor InDesign have native support for SVG or MathML. These XML formats can be converted to static images for use within these page layout applications, but then the inherent advantages of using these formats in the first place are lost, including accessibility and interactivity.
These challenges are certainly not insurmountable, and DITA support by page layout software will continue to improve. The more difficult branding requirements introduce challenges when DITA content is reused for other business units (e.g. marketing). Many design obstacles can be handled better by products which support high-fidelity page layout, but at the cost of automation. For example, the layouts most challenging to conventional XML-based publishing engines include features like irregular-sized graphics with text wraparound and multi-column layouts with callouts anchored to relevant text content. These difficulties can now be handled automatically with XML-aware layout engines, such as InDesign Server and QuarkXPress Server, used in concert with the DITA-OT.
As DITA continues to grow in popularity as a document format for non-technical industries and as branding and user experience become important priorities for organizations, demand grows for tools to make DITA easier to use and implement for non-technical authors and contributors. Chief among the pain points for DITA implementers is PDF customization – working with code is not always feasible for layout design, a process that for centuries has been a visual, manual process, nor does it allow for the rich design key to a great user experience. Using desktop publishing software QuarkXPress or InDesign, mature products for which the primary application is layout design, is one possibility for producing high-quality, rich-layout templates for use in PDF and other outputs.
Furthermore, because QuarkXPress and InDesign both support XML, a similar process can be used for other XML-based document formats. Smart Content [White 2015] has an extensible typed architecture like DITA but is simpler in nature (only a couple dozen elements in comparison to the 600+ elements in the DITA standard) and arguably more approachable to developers familiar with HTML-related standards. SmartContent is used extensively with QuarkXPress templates and has proven immensely successful for a broad range of enterprise organizations needing content automation coupled with engaging page layout. Using page layout software, all XML documents can become swans.
[Coravu 2016] Coravu, Radu. DITA Usage Survey. <oXygen/> XML Blog, 2016, April 5.
[Gold 2013] Gold, Peter. Which is better: FrameMaker or InDesign? InDesignSecrets, 2013, September 12.
[Goodson 2012] Goodson, Scott. Why Brand Building Is Important. Forbes, 2012, May 7.
[Harold & Means 2002] Harold, Elliotte Rusty, & Means, W. Scott. 13.5 Choosing Between CSS and XSL-FO. XML in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition. Sebastopol: O’Reilly & Associates, Inc., 2002.
[Novin 2010] Novin, Guity. Chapter 58: History of Layout Design and Modern Newspaper & Magazines. A History of Graphic Design. 2010.
[Samuels 2014] Samuels, Jacquie. Everybody into the Pool: Yes, Non-Technical Writers Can Use DITA. TechWhir-l, 2014, December 2.
[Schengili-Roberts 2012] Schengili-Roberts, Keith. Who is Using DITA? DITA Usage by Industry Sector. Information Management News, 2012, March.
[White 2015] White, David. “Smart Content for High-Value Communications.” Presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference 2015, Washington, DC, August 11 – 14, 2015. In Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2015. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 15 (2015). doi: 10.4242/BalisageVol15.White01 .
Autumn Cuellar is a Technical Services Consultant for Quark Software. The paper “The Ugly Duckling No More: Using Page Layout Software to Format DITA Outputs” was first presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference in August 2016.
Overcoming the Fragmentation Challenge
When the content world was print-centric, organizations only had to think in terms of producing print content in order to reach their audience. Sure, creating multiple versions of that print content had complications, but those were largely manageable through manual processes and desktop tools.
While the initial move from print-only to print and web was slow, the acceleration in multi-channel content has been tremendous. The figure below illustrates the shift from the old content paradigm to the new omni-channel world.
When you consider the cost of creating content, reviewing and approving content, running compliance checks in regulted industries, publishing the content, distributing the content and then making updates to that content, the business cost is significant. When you consider doing it across multiple channels, the cost is prohibitive.
You could simply decide not to support all of these channels – and you certainly need to assess your customers’ and employees’ content-consumption preferences. However, the rise of digital content, social media, and mobile devices – even wearable tech like the Apple Watch – has resulted in more empowered, better-informed customers and employees with high expectations that you’ll need to meet in order to win and retain them.
Your customers, in particular, not only expect content across all of the channels, but also want it to be immediately accessible, relevant, and engaging.
Is mobile fragmentation and its associated costs a challenge that your organization needs to overcome? Download the Beginner’s Guide to Content Automation and begin to learn how to move away from traditional content workflows and processes and towards content automation.
The Beginner’s Guide to Smart Content
For decades technical writers and technical publishers have reaped the benefits of XML to lower the cost and effort associated with creating, managing and reusing content across multiple output formats. Now, with the introduction of Smart Content, business users and subject matter experts can easily adopt XML in order to keep up with consumer demand for high-value communication.
Download the free eBook “The Beginner’s Guide to Smart Content” to access a look at the evolution of XML and Smart Content, with chapters that include:
- What is Smart Content?
- A Brief Primer on Publishing Processes
- The Cost of Smart Content
- Who Else Is Using XML for Document Production?
- What’s Wrong with XML?
- Smart Content Details
- 12 Reasons to Adopt Smart Content
Infographic: Content Automation Survey Results 2016
InfoTrends, the market research and strategic consulting firm, conducted a survey in conjunction with Quark to find out more about content strategies and challenges among enterprise organizations. The results uncovered data that supports the need for content automation solutions that solve issues related to customer experience, enterprise content management, omni-channel publishing and more. We boiled the key findings down into an infographic highlighting everything from the top ten business-critical content types and the average yearly spend on content technology.
For more detail beyond the infographic, download a free 18-page InfoTrends whitepaper about the survey results.